Stream: quantum computing

Topic: quantum prisoner's dilemma


view this post on Zulip Yijun He (Aug 13 2019 at 09:41):

I just finished the proof for both the classical case and the entangled case of the quantum prisoner's dilemma.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 15 2019 at 10:50):

@Yijun He Can you open a pull request ?
I will review it as soon as possible once I'm done with the review of Deutsch-Jozsa.

view this post on Zulip Yijun He (Aug 15 2019 at 10:55):

I opened a pull request just now.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 20 2019 at 17:50):

I opened a pull request just now.

I'm going to start the review of your PR.

view this post on Zulip Yijun He (Aug 21 2019 at 03:34):

I closed the old pull request and opened a new one with only Quantum_Prisoners_Dilemma.thy.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 21 2019 at 14:29):

@Yijun He what is the main reference you used for your formalization ?

view this post on Zulip Yijun He (Aug 21 2019 at 14:33):

Sorry, I forgot to give you the link. It's exercise 4 there. Unfortunately, it seems there is no solution available on their webpage. At least, they give a link.

I referred to this paper in the link you gave me: https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/9806088

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 21 2019 at 14:37):

I added a bibliography.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 21 2019 at 14:39):

By the way, do not forget to update your branch, you're many commits behind, otherwise there will be incompabilities.

view this post on Zulip Hanna Lachnitt (Aug 21 2019 at 14:51):

I used the paper above and this:
https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0301042.pdf
Although I am not sure if its relevant anymore

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 22 2019 at 08:52):

@Hanna Lachnitt Regarding your second comment in the theory, the computation of J^=exp{iyD^D^/2} \hat{\mathcal{J}}=\exp \{i y \hat{D} \otimes \hat{D} / 2\} gives indeed

view this post on Zulip Hanna Lachnitt (Aug 22 2019 at 08:58):

@Anthony Bordg
I left this comment. Thank you, I was not sure since I read several papers which were a bit unclear about it (mostly didn't said what D^\hat{D} was) and none gave an explicit representation so I calculated this myself.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 22 2019 at 09:43):

To illustrate my point about nested proofs à la Lamport, I prefer the second proof to the first one in the following:

lemma (in prisoner)
  shows "J*|unit_vec 4 0⟩ = ψ⇩1"
proof
  fix i j
  assume "i < dim_row ψ⇩1" and "j < dim_col ψ⇩1"
  then have f0: "i∈{0,1,2,3} ∧ j=0" using mat_of_cols_list_def by auto
  then have  "(J*|unit_vec 4 0⟩) $$ (i,j) = (∑k<4. (J $$ (i,k)) * ( |unit_vec 4 0⟩ $$ (k,j)))"
    using mat_of_cols_list_def ket_vec_def
    by auto
  also have "... = (∑k∈{0,1,2,3}. (J $$ (i,k)) * ( |unit_vec 4 0⟩ $$ (k,j)))"
    using set_4 atLeast0LessThan by auto
  also have "... = ψ⇩1 $$(i,j)"
    using mat_of_cols_list_def f0 by auto
  finally show "(J*|unit_vec 4 0⟩) $$ (i,j) = ψ⇩1 $$(i,j)" by blast
next
  show  "dim_row (J*|unit_vec 4 0⟩) = dim_row ψ⇩1"
    using mat_of_cols_list_def by simp
next
  show  "dim_col (J*|unit_vec 4 0⟩) = dim_col ψ⇩1"
    using mat_of_cols_list_def
    by (simp add: ket_vec_def)
qed

and

lemma (in prisoner)
  shows "J * |unit_vec 4 0⟩ = ψ⇩1"
proof
  fix i j assume a0:"i < dim_row ψ⇩1" and a1:"j < dim_col ψ⇩1"
  then have "(J * |unit_vec 4 0⟩) $$ (i,j) = (∑k<4. (J $$ (i,k)) * ( |unit_vec 4 0⟩ $$ (k,j)))"
    using mat_of_cols_list_def ket_vec_def by auto
  also have "... = (∑k∈{0,1,2,3}. (J $$ (i,k)) * ( |unit_vec 4 0⟩ $$ (k,j)))"
    using set_4 atLeast0LessThan by simp
  also have "... = ψ⇩1 $$(i,j)"
  proof-
    have "i∈{0,1,2,3} ∧ j=0"
      using a0 a1 mat_of_cols_list_def by auto
    thus ?thesis
      using mat_of_cols_list_def by auto
  qed
  finally show "(J * |unit_vec 4 0⟩) $$ (i,j) = ψ⇩1 $$ (i,j)" by simp
next
  show  "dim_row (J * |unit_vec 4 0⟩) = dim_row ψ⇩1"
    using mat_of_cols_list_def by simp
next
  show  "dim_col (J*|unit_vec 4 0⟩) = dim_col ψ⇩1"
    using mat_of_cols_list_def by (simp add: ket_vec_def)
qed

Here nested proofs don't make a big difference, since the proof is short and easy, but it allows me to illustrate my point. In longer and more intricate proofs it's nicer to introduce statements (here f0) where they are actually used. Also, if properly used the depth is an indication for the reader of the difficulty/importance of a statement, the higher the depth the more obvious/low-level is the statement.
@Yijun He @Hanna Lachnitt

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 22 2019 at 10:05):

There is a sign error in UAU_A and UBU_B. Compare for instance

abbreviation (in restricted_strategic_space) U⇩A :: "complex Matrix.mat" where
"U⇩A ≡  mat_of_cols_list 2 [[(exp(𝗂*ψ⇩A))*cos(θ⇩A/2), sin (θ⇩A/2)],
                           [-sin(θ⇩A/2), (exp (-𝗂*ψ⇩A))*cos(θ⇩A/2)]]"

with (3) in the reference used.
@Yijun He

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 22 2019 at 10:17):

A few lemmas should be moved into Basics.thy

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 22 2019 at 10:42):

Instead of the ad hoc J_cnj, one should define the conjugate of a matrix in Quantum.thy.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 22 2019 at 16:17):

@Yijun He What is "alice_vec" in alice_vec_is_state ? Where does this vector come from ?

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 22 2019 at 16:30):

Yijun He What is "alice_vec" in alice_vec_is_state ? Where does this vector come from ?

I think I understand, this is the vector you get when you plug γ=0\gamma = 0, ψB=0\psi_B = 0 and θB=π\theta_B = \pi in ψf\psi_f.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 23 2019 at 14:10):

There is a sign error in UAU_A and UBU_B.

@Yijun He Note however this "error" is not a problem, since you just replaced DD by D-D in (5) while CC is kept unchanged, but in that case JJ as defined in (7) is still a solution of equation (6). So, it's why you was able to complete the formalization despite this discrepancy in signs.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 23 2019 at 15:15):

I have expanded the introduction:

Prisoner's dilemma ceases to pose a dilemma if quantum strategies are allowed for. Indeed,
Alice and Bob both choosing to defect is no longer a Nash equilibrium. However, a new Nash
equilibrium appears which is at the same time Pareto optimal. Moreover, there exists a
quantum strategy which always gives reward if played against any classical strategy.
Below the parameter γ can be seen as a measure of the game's entanglement. The game behaves
classically if γ = 0, and for the maximally entangled case (γ = 2*$\pi$) the dilemma disappears.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 23 2019 at 15:49):

@Yijun He It's a bit confusing that ψ\psi is used instead of ϕ\phi as in the reference.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 23 2019 at 16:15):

One could bring a little more structure into the theory by creating three sections section <The Set-Up>, section <The Separable Case> and section <The Maximally Entangled Case>.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 23 2019 at 16:20):

One could add a fourth section on the biased strategic space and the miracle move.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 23 2019 at 16:28):

One could add formal specifications for Nash equilibrium and Pareto optimum and prove that in the maximally entangled case DDD\otimes D is no longer a Nash equilibrium and that QQ Q \otimes Q is a Nash equilibrium and Pareto optimal.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 23 2019 at 16:49):

A lot of names could be improved, since they are not currently illuminating.
What about classical_case_DD (* both players defect*) instead of classical_case, classical_alice_payoff_D⇩B (* Alice's payoff in the classical case if Bob defects *) instead of classical_alice_optimal, quantum_case_QQ (* both players play the quantum move *) instead of quantum_case, quantum_alice_payoff_D⇩B (* Alice's payoff in the quantum case if Bod defects *) instead of quantum_alice_optimal ?

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 23 2019 at 20:26):

I also prefer the prefixes separable_ and max_entangled_ instead of classical_ and quantum_.
Indeed, there are two ways to get the classical limit, either γ=0\gamma = 0 or (γ=π/2\gamma = \pi/2 and both players play ϕ=0\phi = 0). So, even in the maximally entangled case, i.e. the "quantum" case, one can retrieve the classical case as a limit.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 23 2019 at 21:09):

Yijun He It's a bit confusing that ψ\psi is used instead of ϕ\phi as in the reference.

changed

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 23 2019 at 21:10):

One could bring a little more structure into the theory by creating three sections section <The Set-Up>, section <The Separable Case> and section <The Maximally Entangled Case>.

sections added

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 23 2019 at 21:10):

A lot of names could be improved, since they are not currently illuminating.
What about classical_case_DD (* both players defect*) instead of classical_case, classical_alice_payoff_D⇩B (* Alice's payoff in the classical case if Bob defects *) instead of classical_alice_optimal, quantum_case_QQ (* both players play the quantum move *) instead of quantum_case, quantum_alice_payoff_D⇩B (* Alice's payoff in the quantum case if Bod defects *) instead of quantum_alice_optimal ?

names changed

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 23 2019 at 21:11):

I also prefer the prefixes separable_ and max_entangled_ instead of classical_ and quantum_.
Indeed, there are two ways to get the classical limit, either γ=0\gamma = 0 or (γ=π/2\gamma = \pi/2 and both players play ϕ=0\phi = 0). So, even in the maximally entangled case, i.e. the "quantum" case, one can retrieve the classical case as a limit.

prefixes changed

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Aug 23 2019 at 21:13):

PR #18 merged.

view this post on Zulip Yijun He (Sep 02 2019 at 01:38):

When I was working on the unfair strategy case, I found a problem with the proof: the original paper says that, when Alice plays the miracle move (ϕ=π/2\phi = \pi/2 and θ=π/2\theta = \pi/2) and Bob plays only classical moves (ϕ=0\phi = 0) in the maximally entangled case, the payoff of Alice should be greater than 3. However, my proof shows that this is not true: in particular, I proved a lemma saying assumes "γ = pi/2" shows "φ⇩A = pi/2 ∧ θ⇩A = pi/2 ∧ φ⇩B = 0 ∧ θ⇩B = pi/2 ⟶ alice_payoff = 1 ∧ bob_payoff = 1"

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Sep 02 2019 at 12:58):

When I was working on the unfair strategy case, I found a problem with the proof: the original paper says that, when Alice plays the miracle move (ϕ=π/2\phi = \pi/2 and θ=π/2\theta = \pi/2) and Bob plays only classical moves (ϕ=0\phi = 0) in the maximally entangled case, the payoff of Alice should be greater than 3. However, my proof shows that this is not true: in particular, I proved a lemma saying assumes "γ = pi/2" shows "φ⇩A = pi/2 ∧ θ⇩A = pi/2 ∧ φ⇩B = 0 ∧ θ⇩B = pi/2 ⟶ alice_payoff = 1 ∧ bob_payoff = 1"

I will have a look as soon as possible.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Sep 02 2019 at 13:22):

Did you use equation (10) to compute Alice's minimal expected payoff ?

view this post on Zulip Yijun He (Sep 02 2019 at 13:26):

Did you use equation (10) to compute Alice's minimal expected payoff ?

No, I just substituted in specific values of Alice's and Bob's strategies, and the result contradicts with the statement that $A(M^,U^(θ,0))3 \$_A(\hat{M}, \hat{U}(\theta,0)) ≥ 3 for any θ[0,π] θ ∈ [0,π]

view this post on Zulip Yijun He (Sep 02 2019 at 13:28):

Please refer to the lemma max_entangled_MH in https://github.com/MH2520/Isabelle_marries_Dirac/blob/prisoners_dilemma_only/Quantum_Prisoners_Dilemma.thy

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Sep 02 2019 at 14:10):

Did you use equation (10) to compute Alice's minimal expected payoff ?

No, I just substituted in specific values of Alice's and Bob's strategies, and the result contradicts with the statement that $A(M^,U^(θ,0))3 \$_A(\hat{M}, \hat{U}(\theta,0)) ≥ 3 for any θ[0,π] θ ∈ [0,π]

Indeed, it contradicts this statement. Are we sure that ψ⇩f in the formalization is correct ?

view this post on Zulip Yijun He (Sep 02 2019 at 14:18):

Did you use equation (10) to compute Alice's minimal expected payoff ?

No, I just substituted in specific values of Alice's and Bob's strategies, and the result contradicts with the statement that $A(M^,U^(θ,0))3 \$_A(\hat{M}, \hat{U}(\theta,0)) ≥ 3 for any θ[0,π] θ ∈ [0,π]

Indeed, it contradicts this statement. Are we sure that ψ⇩f in the formalization is correct ?

I am not entirely sure, but I haven't found any mistakes in the intermediate steps yet. (Such as the definitions of J,UA J, U_A or UB U_B )

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Sep 02 2019 at 14:30):

I'm going to check the computation (1).

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Sep 02 2019 at 17:17):

I think ψ⇩f is incorrect.
One should find:
https://cdn.mathpix.com/snip/images/XEhGrZmKXZ689sZDabFDKLqYmEDFrSC_PGSs2-p8834.original.fullsize.png
@Yijun He

view this post on Zulip Yijun He (Sep 03 2019 at 00:01):

I think the expression in the picture is mostly the same as the ψ⇩f in the code, except the signs or orders of some terms are different.

view this post on Zulip Yijun He (Sep 03 2019 at 00:03):

The first and fourth term in the picture are exactly the same as ψ⇩f $$ (0,0) and ψ⇩f $$ (3,0), and the second and third term are equal to -ψ⇩f $$ (1,0) and -ψ⇩f $$ (2,0), which won't affect the resulting probability.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Sep 03 2019 at 10:53):

Can we prove equation (1) ?

view this post on Zulip Yijun He (Sep 03 2019 at 11:00):

Can we prove equation (1) ?

I added the lemma equation_one to the theory just now. https://github.com/MH2520/Isabelle_marries_Dirac/blob/prisoners_dilemma_only/Quantum_Prisoners_Dilemma.thy

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Sep 03 2019 at 11:09):

Can we prove equation (1) ?

I added the lemma equation_one to the theory just now. https://github.com/MH2520/Isabelle_marries_Dirac/blob/prisoners_dilemma_only/Quantum_Prisoners_Dilemma.thy

There is no room for doubt anymore.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Sep 22 2019 at 15:44):

@Yijun He The definition of a Pareto optimum should be something like

definition (in restricted_strategic_space) is_pareto_opt :: "bool" where
"is_pareto_opt ≡
∀tA pA tB pB.
(
(restricted_strategic_space.alice_payoff γ tA pA tB pB > alice_payoff ⟶ restricted_strategic_space.bob_payoff γ tA pA tB pB < bob_payoff)
∧
(restricted_strategic_space.bob_payoff γ tA pA tB pB > bob_payoff ⟶ restricted_strategic_space.alice_payoff γ tA pA tB pB < alice_payoff)
)"

To avoid something so long, you may want to rename restricted_strategic_space with strategic_space or something even shorter.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Sep 22 2019 at 16:35):

@Yijun He The definition of a Nash equilibrium is simply:

definition (in restricted_strategic_space) is_nash_eq :: "bool" where
"is_nash_eq ≡
(∀tA pA. alice_payoff ≥ restricted_strategic_space.alice_payoff γ tA pA θ⇩B φ⇩B)
∧
(∀tB pB. bob_payoff ≥ restricted_strategic_space.bob_payoff γ θ⇩A φ⇩A tB pB)"

view this post on Zulip Yijun He (Sep 23 2019 at 10:15):

@Anthony Bordg Many thanks! I didn't realize that restricted_strategic_space.alice_payoff allows me to use alice_payoff directly as a function. I have fixed up all the definitions and lemmas, and I will make a pull request after double checking.

view this post on Zulip Anthony Bordg (Oct 06 2019 at 10:15):

To avoid something so long, you may want to rename *restricted_strategic_space* with *strategic_space* or something even shorter.

@Yijun He Sorry to come back on that, but to avoid any possible confusion a more precise name is needed. 2p_strategic_space or even 2p_space where 2p stands for 2-parameter are shorter and unambiguous.

view this post on Zulip Yijun He (Oct 06 2019 at 20:52):

@Anthony Bordg I replaced strategic_space by strategic_space_2p and updated the pull request. It seems that identifiers in Isabelle couldn't begin with a numeral.


Last updated: Feb 04 2023 at 01:27 UTC